Nursing Care for Malnutrition Singapore
Malnutrition or malnourishment occurs when there is less intake of nutritional foods or more intake of non-nutritious foods specifically protein, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals to name a few. But for most people, malnourishment is often interchanged with the word undernourished which can be attributed to several factors such as poverty or other forms of gene illness. This is common in third world countries and African countries as well. Over nutrition on the other hand, also a form of malnourishment, is common among industrialized nations where there is abundance of resources and unhealthy food choices.
Types, Signs and Symptoms, EffectsBesides under nutrition and over nutrition, resources and reference point out other types of malnutrition. The first one is Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) in which there is two types: Kwashiorkor and marasmus. Diagnosis of kwashiorkor occurs when there isn’t enough intake of protein in the diet of the patient but there is enough calorie intake. Clinical symptoms of patients include anorexia, edema, enlarged liver and being irritable. Marasmus occurs when children eat low portions of meals and skip low protein content. This can be related to agricultural disasters wherein food is not available.
Sign and symptoms of a malnourished patient are easy to recognize especially for the obese types. For the emaciated patient, it is also noticeable that they have extreme lost of weight. Furthermore, they have dry eyes, dry brittle hair, skin erosions, pallor, low blood pressure and stunting of growth.
Effects of mal nutrition have a significant effect on the body. They may also be at risk for other disease. The first health effect according to medical data is cognitive impairment. The growth also becomes impaired especially to children with severe undernourishment. For the obese people, they are at risk of heart problems in the future, as man age.
Nursing Care Plan for MalnourishmentSeveral nursing care plans are available specifically for patients who are under or over nourished. Management and treatment is usually aimed towards recuperation. They can be actually managed at home. But in severe cases, hospital admission is advised. For the undernourished, the staff can compute for the appropriate dietary daily intake based on their main weight and height or BMI. Once determined, the physician can order a high-protein, high-caloric diet depending on the condition of the patient. The goal is usually to safely increase the weight by some road map. Appropriate IV line can also be started and food products such as TPN or total parenteral nutrition can be infused via the intravenous line. For the over nourished people, the pro nursing staff can help the patient through proper referral to a dietician. The nurse can also do health teaching about proper nutrition as well as use of exercises that they can do in their very own homes. View or read these guide will not only help the patient, but can motivate them to lose weight.
ConclusionWe must help and act immediately on these cases of malnutrition before it’s too late. Online information in which we can donate to feed the hungry around the world can be accessed in the internet.
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